revision time

Ah although these videos seem more or less look like they have something to do with what I am going to type here, they have nothing to do with it – I just love them commercials so much (:

The BBC weather forecast says it won’t be snowing tonight, there’ll be a widespread of frost. Anyway, it has been snowing. So, you don’t have to read all this – I’m just doing my revision. The Role of Marketing Communications (Baines et. al 2008)

The concept of exchange is central to our understanding of marketing. For an exchange to take place there must be two or more parties, each of whom can offer something of value to the other and who are prepared to enter freely into the exchange process, a transaction.

Fundamentally, marketing communications comprises three elements: a set of tools, the media, and messages.

The five common tools are:

  1. advertising
  2. sales promotion
  3. personal selling
  4. direct marketing
  5. public relations

Marketing communications is used to achieve one of two principal goals:

  1. the development of brand values;
  2. to make people behave in particular ways.

Brand communication seeks to make us think positively about a brand, helps us to remember and develop positive brand attitudes. the alternative and more contemporary goal is to use communications to make us behave in particular ways. Rather than spend lots of money on developing worthy and positive attitudes toward brands, the view of many today is that we should use this money to encourage people to behave differently. This might be through buying the product, or driving them to a website, requesting a brochure, or making a telephone call. This is called behaviour change and is driven by using messages that provide audiences with a reason to act or what is referred to as a ‘call-to-action’.

So, communications can be used to develop brand feelings and to change or manage the behaviour of the target audience. The success of marketing communication depends upon the extent to which messages engage their audiences.

There are many types of exchange, but two are of particular importance: transactional exchanges and collaborative exchanges.

Transactional exchanges (Bagozzi, 1978; Houston and Gassenheimer, 1987) are transactions that occur independently of any previous or subsequent exchanges. They have short-term orientation and are primarily motivated by self-interest. So, when a consumer buys a MP3 player, a brand that he has not bought before, then a transactional exchange can be identified.

Collaborative exchanges (Dwyer, Schurr, and Oh, 1987) have a longer-term orientation and develop between parties who wish to build long-term supportive relationships. So, when a customer buys their third product from the same brand as the MP3 player, perhaps from the same dealer, collaborative exchanges are considered to be taking place.

Audiences who prefer transactional exchanges might be better engaged with advertising and mass media-based communications, with messages that are impersonal and largely rational and product focused. Audiences that prefer more collaborative exchanges should be engaged through personal , informal, and interactive communications, with messages that are generally emotional and relationship oriented.


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